The Global Water Initiative (GWI) was an action-research and advocacy programme that ran from 2008-17. The project is now closed. This site is no longer being updated, but allows access to GWI outputs until 1 October 2020 when it will also close. After that date, information about the project and core GWI technical publications will continue to be available from the IIED website and Publications Library.

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Burkina Faso

Hydrological study of the Black Volta Basin, Ghana and Burkina Faso

English

Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali and the Ivory Coast all share the natural resources of the Black Volta river basin. Collaborative water management is therefore crucial to help build and maintain mutual trust. In fact, the resources of the Black Volta basin could meet all of the area’s water needs until at least 2030, and there is much untapped potential (for example, most of the Ghanaian land in the basin is not yet developed for sustainable agriculture).

Establishment of the Joint Technical Commitee for the Sourou River (Mali/Burkina Faso)

English

The Joint Technical Committee formed by this agreement represents an official collaboration on water resource management between Mali and Burkina Faso. It is co-signed by two government ministers each representing their country, adding legal weight to IWRM projects in the cross-border Sourou river basin.

 

Sharing the Benefits of Large Dams in West Africa

English

Drawing on the lessons from nearly 50 years of large dam construction in West Africa, we reviewed the literature and consulted stakeholders and governments to better inform the planning of future dams. This research focuses on six large dams in Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, and is particularly pertinent given that 39 new dams are planned in the coming years across West Africa. We argue that sharing the benefits of large dams is in everyone’s interests, and actually reduces costs, since it avoids expensive long-term disputes.

 

Evaluation of village water management structures in Burkina Faso

English

GWI carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of village borehole management structures in Burkina Faso. We sampled 12 out of 34 project villages. We graded various aspects of the management structures, analysing strengths and weaknesses in depth, and produced a useful table summarising the key points. We conclude with a set of practical recommendations for improving village borehole management in the future.

Analysis of effectiveness of handpump management committees (Burkina Faso)

English

In terms of drinking water and sanitation, the general law on decentralised government and the law on water management, including all the associated texts, provide the essential framework for public intervention in the field of water. This report analyses the legal texts and describes their key attributes concerning the management of public service water distribution in rural areas and particularly the role of water users. The analysis of stakeholder practice in the field records the weaknesses of current drinking water supply management systems and the need for change.

Management of check dams in the Sirba sub-basin, Burkina Faso

English

Boulis/earth pan reservoirs and their surrounding areas can be used for income generation in Burkina Faso. For example, farmers and pastoralists pay an annual fee (in proportion to the size of their herd) to graze their animals around boulis. This document is a draft agreement outlining participatory negotiations for the management of boulis reservoirs, and specifies the role and responsibilities of the Boulis Management Committee (COGEB).

Summary of GWI BF activities, 2008-2012

English

GWI activities in the Sirba basin are described, covering six municipalities in the East and Sahel Regions with 34 intervention villages.  Five local water management committees were set up and their intervention area within the Sirba basin determined. Changes were promoted in the organisational relationships and responsibilities of municipalities, the State, the villages and NGOs to sustainably manage water points in Komondjari Province. Access to clean water was improved for 9,000 people in 17 villages (18 new pumps, 11 rehabilitations).

Mid term independent evaluation of GWI (2011)

English

GWI asked experts in IWRM from the 2IE Engineering Institute to visit all four project sites and to evaluate the approach and experience on IWRM that GWI was promoting with local partners. This report analyses the field projects against a set of standard IWRM indicators and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the GWI programme. This report was an opportunity to confront the GWI approach with the regional IWRM policies promoted by 2IE and to provide a local learning opportunity for all involved, confronting theory with practice on the ground.

 

GWI WA M&E methodology: set of learning tools

English

GWI was initially conceived as a ten year programme and IIED, working with IWEL, developed a Monitoring and Evaluation strategy with two components. Firstly a results-based approach to monitoring the delivery of 11 programme outcomes by 2017 using standardised regional data, starting from baselines established in 2009 and 2010. Secondly an internal process of learning, sharing and communicating lessons and experience within project teams across the region, and with other local and national actors.

Pages

Our work in Burkina Faso focuses on supporting smallholders who are farming, transforming and trading rice in the irrigated area around the Bagré dam. We are also looking at the overall economic impact of the dam itself, both in terms of return on investment of the dam as a whole, and in terms of the role it plays in improving livelihoods of the communities it affects.

During GWI’s previous phase of work in Burkina Faso (2008-12), we focused on integrated water resources management in relation to the Kompienga dam.

Bagré dam

Bagré dam was inaugurated in 1994 and the irrigated perimeter of the dam lies approximately 150 km south east of Burkina Faso’s capital, Ouagadougou. It falls mainly within the department of Bagré in Boulgou province, although it also overlaps into Zoundwéogo, Kouritenga and Ganzourgou provinces. In 2012, a public-private partnership – Bagrépôle – took over management of the dam and its irrigated perimeter.

Developing hydropower and large scale irrigated agriculture were the two main objectives in constructing Bagré dam. Its perimeter zone extends to 493,000 hectares with an estimated potential of 29,900 hectares to be developed for irrigated agriculture. Rain-fed land in the dam’s perimeter zone covers approximately 25,000 hectares, which brings the total potential cultivable land to 54 900 hectares.

The dam’s hydro-agricultural objective aims to address food security for the local and national population. Traditional cereal farming on rain-fed land is the main source of livelihood in the region, along with the raising of livestock, including pastoralism. Improving and increasing the production of rice – which is already widely but not commercially produced – is a key component of the government’s national development policies.

By the end of 2013, of the 29,900 hectares of potential irrigated agricultural land, only 3,380 hectares had been developed and allocated to smallholders. In total, 1,673 families, grouped together in 16 villages, are working on this irrigated land. Each family’s head of the household is a representative member of the village collective and responsible for the family’s allocated plot.

Assessment of rice-producing smallholders

To help empower local smallholders and producers to increase production levels and improve their livelihoods, we are carrying out research to find out more about the issues that they face in large-scale irrigation schemes. This includes analysing the different types of local rice-producing smallholders in Bagré and how their methods and needs differ. We carried out similar research in Senegal and Mali and in 2014 published a synthesis of the regional findings which provides a comparative analysis across all three countries.

Find out more about our work on Empowering smallholders.

Local women’s views on rice production

We have been working with women in two villages within the Bagré irrigated perimeter using participatory film-making to find out more about their role in rice production and identify the issues that are most important to them. Women represent a high proportion of the agricultural labour force and yet are frequently not involved in decision-making and rarely have access to secure land tenure.

Find out more about our work with Women farmers.

Agricultural advisory services

Our research on the issues faced by rice-producing smallholders – both men and women – has indicated two important areas that need to be addressed to support productivity and livelihoods of smallholders in Burkina Faso:

  • Strong farmer organisations
  • Improved agricultural advisory services

Bagrépôle – the dam management authority – is currently undertaking a review of how agricultural advisory services are carried out in the context of the Bagré irrigated perimeter. This provides us with an opportunity to support both Bagrépôle and the local producer organisations in identifying current gaps and potential solutions to the provision of these services.

You can find out more about our work on agricultural advisory services here.

An economic assessment of Bagré

In parallel to our work with smallholder rice producers, we are also carrying out an economic analysis of Bagré dam to evaluate the impact that it has had both as a national investment, and in terms of local livelihoods. The initial findings of this analysis indicate that with regards its hydro-agricultural aim, the dam has not fulfilled its potential. On the other hand, the returns from the hydropower component of the dam have been as good as was hoped.

We are undertaking similar analyses in Mali and Senegal which will help us to draw out some comparisons and conclusions at a regional level. This forms part of our wider work on developing awareness and debate about the livelihood impacts and economic viability of intensive, large scale irrigation schemes.

Find out more about our work on Quality investments.

Key facts

Project area: 4 villages in six municipalities of the Eastern and Sahel regions (Bartiébougou, Foutouri and Gayéri in Komondjari province; Boundoré and Mansila in Yagha province; and Liptougou in Gnagna province).

Basin: Sirba sub-basin, Niger River Basin

Implementation: IUCN and CRS, with the support of Tin Tua, CREPA and RECOPA

Starting point

Our baseline study in 2009 revealed a progressively deteriorating water and sanitation situation, due to:

  • Insufficient access to water and sanitation facilities, and poor hygiene behaviour;

  • Water-governance bodies not yet being operational;

  • Unsustainable ecosystem management.

With that in mind, we began working with communities in the project area to:

  • Build or repair multi-use water facilities that would ensure sustainable and equitable access to water (e.g. boreholes with manual pumps and earth pans).

  • Promote good hygiene and sanitation practices, with a view to fostering long-term behavioural change.

  • Improve knowledge and methods of natural-resource management, and establish frameworks and operational bodies for natural-resource governance.

Project achievements

We helped to achieve integrated, sustainable and fair management of water resources at the community, municipal and sub-basin levels. Our aim throughout was to foster long-term behavioural change. This was in the context of new institutional and legislative developments, since a process of effective decentralisation was under way, with responsibility for water and sanitation services being transferred to local authorities, among others, which tied into the national policy for integrated water-resource management (IWRM).

In consultation with the national water board, we marked out five zones of authority for local water committees in the Sirba sub-basin. In our project area, we facilitated the creation and supported the work of a local water committee at the tip of the sub-basin. This was the result of a process in which we engaged communities in identifying issues and planning activities that would lay the ground work for implementing IWRM at the local level. Other outcomes of the process included:

  • Fostering greater coordination between all those involved in natural-resource governance at the tip of the Sirba sub-basin.

  • Improving understanding of the quality of water resources in the Sirba sub-basin.

  • Organising, equipping and raising awareness of IWRM and the effects of climate change, especially among vulnerable groups.

  • Reducing pressure on drinking-water supplies by building four earth pans for watering livestock. We established community platforms and three-party protocols (local authorities, the national water board and communities) for their management.

  • Capitalising on our experience of setting up a local water committee at the tip of the Sirba sub-basin, which was recognised as valuable by the Directorate-General for Water Resources, we contributed to the revision of the 2004 national guide for establishing local water committees, in 2009.

A reform of the system for managing drinking-water facilities marked a significant step towards achieving sustainable management in Komondjari province. Together with stakeholders in the province, now better organised, we:

  • Improved drinking-water access for over 8,700 people in 17 villages (by building 18 new boreholes with manual pumps and repairing 11 existing boreholes).

  • Raised awareness of pump management among communities and municipalities. Municipal councils in Komondjari province are now better informed of, and engaged in, sustainable water provision. They have held three council deliberations about the price of water; adopted 18 conventions to delegate management of manual pumps to water-user associations; signed contracts with repairmen for preventive and reparative maintenance of manual pumps; and set up municipal committees to monitor facilities.

Overall, our project reached more than 9,650 people and raised significant public awareness about the issue of open defecation through training (for local elected representatives, communities, builders, teachers, pupils' parents, the national water board, etc.) and the promotion of hygiene and sanitation (through forum theatre presentations, radio broadcasts, community-led total sanitation, new school hygiene clubs, etc.).

Find out more:

Browse and download project reports, technical tools and articles produced by the GWI Burkina Faso team.

Contacts

ROLE:

NAME:

EMAIL:

National Coordinator

Nouhoun SANOU 

sanhoun@yahoo.fr

IWRM

Drissa SOULAMA

soul_amad@yahoo.fr      

Water Hardware

Marcelin ILBOUDO

marcelinil@yahoo.fr

Hygiene and Sanitation 

Mireille TIENDREBEOGO 

  (until March 2011)

Ivette NOMBRE

  (since April 2011)

mimitiendre@yahoo.fr

ivettenombr@yahoo.fr

Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning

Ludovic TAPSOBA

ludovic.tapsoba@yahoo.fr